Full reference: L. H. Hou. 1997. Mesozoic birds of China
Sister taxa: none
Type specimen: IVPP V10913, a set of postcrania (an incomplete skeleton lacking the head and forelimb). Its type locality is Beishan Quarry, Boluochi, which is in an Aptian lacustrine mudstone in the Jiufotang Formation of China.
Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore